"Rollin' and Tumblin'" (or "Roll and Tumble Blues") is a blues song first recorded by American singer/guitarist Hambone Willie Newbern in 1929. Called a "great Delta blues classic", it has been interpreted by hundreds of Delta and Chicago blues artists, including well-known recordings by Muddy Waters. "Rollin' and Tumblin'" has also been refashioned by a variety of rock-oriented artists.
Hambone Willie Newbern recorded "Roll and Tumble Blues" on March 14, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia for Okeh Records. It shares several elements of "Minglewood Blues", first recorded in 1928 by Gus Cannon's Jug Stompers. Newbern's "Roll and Tumble Blues" is a solo piece with his vocal and slide-guitar accompaniment.
The song is performed in the key of A using an open tuning and an irregular number of bars.  The tempo varies from an initial 140 beats per minute to a final 158 bpm. A key feature of the song is that the first verse begins on the IV chord, rather than on the more usual I chord (e.g., in the key of A this would be the D chord rather than the A chord). After the first two measures the IV chord resolves to the I chord. Often the IV chord moves to IV♭7 on the second measure or the last two beats of the second measure.
The lyrics follow a standard blues AAB pattern and relate a failed relationship:
And I rolled and I tumbled and I cried the whole night long (2×)
A I rose this mornin' mama and I didn't know right from wrong...
And I fold my arms lord and I walked away (2×)
Said 'that's all right sweet mama your trouble gon' come some day'
"Roll and Tumble Blues" is one of six songs Newbern recorded during his only recording session. It was released before the advent of race records charts, however, it soon became "an oft-covered standard" and Newbern's best-known song.
The best-known version is Muddy Waters' "Rollin' and Tumblin'", with Ernest "Big" Crawford on bass, for the Chess brothers' Aristocrat label in 1950. Leonard Chess insisted that Waters record the song less than a month after Waters had recorded a version for the rival Parkway label, featuring his band mates Little Walter and Baby Face Leroy Foster. The Parkway label credits the Baby Face Leroy Trio, with vocals by Leroy, and Muddy Waters as the songwriter. Elmore James recorded a different arrangement of the song in 1960, with himself credited as author.
The song was recorded by Bob Dylan for his 2006 album Modern Times. Dylan claims authorship of the song on most versions of his record. While musically the arrangement is very similar to the Muddy Waters version, Dylan's introduces all new verses, though retaining the two opening lines. A version of the song can be seen on Dr. Feelgood's "Going Back Home" show from 1975 which was released on DVD back in 2005. Dr.Feelgood also covered the song on their second album Malpractise from 1975. The Grateful Dead covered the song live in concert many times under many different names, including "Minglewood Blues," "The New Minglewood Blues," "The All-New Minglewood Blues," and "The New New Minglewood Blues." Despite the similarity in title "New Minglewood Blues" was a different song, originally recorded on November 26, 1930 by Noah Lewis (who had played on Cannon's original "Minglewood Blues").